语法检测-英语语法简介

编辑:pitaya02        日期:2020-09-01

本人是高三学生,整理了一部分火龙果写作公开的学习资料,更正了一些拼写错误,也排版了一下。


语法

句子是人类语言的核心构造,动词是句子的核心。所以学习英语语法需从句子开始。

学习语法-->分析句子 分析句子-->理清句子成分 分析句子-->理清句子关系

句子成分

00001. 主语:句子所陈述的对象。

00002. 谓语:主语发出的动作。一般是有动作意义的动词。

00003. 宾语:分为动词宾语和介词宾语,属于动作的承受者。

00004. 系动词:表示状态或状态变化的动词,没有实际的动作意义。 如 be动词(am, is, are);感官系动词(look, sound, smell, taste, feel);保持类系动词(keep, stay, remain);状态变化类系动词(become, get, turn, go)等。

00005. 表语:紧跟系动词后面的成分。

00006. 定语:修饰名词或代词的成分。

00007. 状语: 修饰形容词、副词、动词或句子的成分。

00008. 补语:分为宾语补足语和主语补足语。是对宾语和主语的补充说明,与其有主动或被动的逻辑关系。

句型

句子的基本结构:主语部分+谓语部分(名词+动词)

五种句型


关键在于谓语动词,它构成了一个句子的骨架

主语+系动词+主语补足语(表语)

系动词(Linking Verb) ​ ​

作用:无具体动作,仅起连接作用 ​ ​

后面所接成分:说明主语特点性质特征 ​ ​

种类:be动词(am, is, are) ​ ​ look, sound, smell, taste, feel, seem, appear, become, turn ​ ​ 表语:名词 or 形容词

主语+谓语(+状语)

不及物动词(Intransitive Verb)vi. ​ ​ 特点:主语自身可以完成,不需要作用对象 ​ ​ 习惯:带状语(修饰动作的成分)

主语+谓语+宾语

及物动词(Transitive Verb)vt. ​ ​ 作用:说明主语动作的作用对象 ​ ​ 宾语:主语动作承受对象

主语+谓语+间宾+直宾

双宾动词(Dative Verb) ​ ​特点:后面成分有(间接宾语[接受者])又有(直接宾语[承受者])

主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语

宾补动词(Factitive Verb)

区分双宾语和复合宾语

在间接宾语后加上be动词,若能成句,则是补足语。


动词的分类

实义动词(Notional Verb)

词义:完整 ​ 作用:能独立充当谓语 ​ 分类:助动词和情态动词以外的动词

助动词(Auxiliary Verb)

词义:不完整 ​ 作用:无法独立充当谓语 ​ 必须和实义动词连用,构成各种时态、语态、语气、否定、疑问 ​ 分类: ​ Be: am, is, are, was, were, been, being ​ Do: does, did ​ Have: has, had, having

Be类

变化形式:am, is, are, was, were, been, being 功能: ​ 1,帮助构成进行时态 ​ ​ I am studying grammar. ​ ​ He is playing football. ​ 2,帮助构成被动语态 ​ ​ I was cheated.

Do类

变化形式:Does, did 功能: ​ 1,帮助实义动词构成否定 ​ ​ I do not like English. ​ 2,帮助实义动词构成疑问 ​ ​ Do you like English?

Have类

变化形式:Has, had, having 功能: ​ 1,帮助构成完成时态 ​ ​ I have studied English for 3 years.

be, do, have可作实义动词又可作助动词


情态动词(Modal Verb)

词义:有词义,表示说话者对某种行为或状态的看法态度 ​ ​ 表示可能、建议、愿望、必要、允许、能力、怀疑 ​ 作用:无法独立充当谓语,必须和实义动词一起构成复合谓语 ​ 常见: can/could/may/might/must/shall/should/will/would/have to/ought to/used to/need/dare

句子的变化

陈述句否定

谓语动词含有助动词或情态动词

变形:助动词或情态动词后+not ​ 例:He is a teacher. He is not a teacher. ​ ​ I can swim. I cannot swim. ​ ​ He will come to the party. he will not come to the party

谓语动词是实义动词

变形:借助助动词do not来构成,第三人称用does+not+动词原形,过去式did+not ​ 例:I like English. I do not like English. ​ ​ He likes English. He does not like English. ​ ​ There are some dogs. There aren't any dogs.

助动词否定的缩写


情态动词否定的缩写


其他词变化:and->or;already->yet;both->either;some->any ​

祈使句:祈使句前+don't 例:Don't open the door. ​

不定式:不定式前+not 例:She asks the boy not to play in the street.

一般疑问句

谓语动词含有助动词或情态动词

变形:助动词 or 情态动词移至句首 ​ 例:He is a teacher. Is he a teacher? Yes, he is./No, he isn't.

谓语动词是实义动词

变形:加do does did于句首,实义动词变原形 ​ 例:He likes English. Does he like English? Yes, he does/No, he doesn't. ​ I like English. Do you like English? Yes, I do/No, I don't.

特殊疑问句

不接名词连用的疑问句

对人提问:who ​ He can sing in English. Who can sing in English. ​ I saw him at the party last night. Who did you see at the party last night?

对事或物:what ​ I like English. What do you like? ​ I am studying English grammar. What are you doing? ​ I am studying English grammar. What are you studying? ​ I'd like to go swimming tomorrow. What would you like to do tomorrow?

对时间提问:when ​ I was born in 1980. When were you born?

对地点提问:where ​ He lives in Beijing. Where does he live?

对方式提问:how ​ He goes to school by bus. How does he go to school?

对原因提问:why ​ I often study at the library because it's quiet. Why do you often study at the library?

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